Glomus Tumour

Glomus tumors are rare soft tissue neoplasms that typically present in adults (ages 20-40 years) as small, blue-red papules or nodules of the distal extremities, with most cases involving subungual sites. These tumors are typically painful, often causing paroxysmal pain in response to temperature changes or pressure. (See Figures 1 & 2)

Glomus tumors are thought to arise from the glomus body, a thermoregulatory shunt concentrated in the fingers and toes. Most lesions are solitary and localized to cutaneous sites; however, generalized glomuvenous malformations, or multiple glomangiomas, have also been described, and may have extracutaneous involvement.

While the vast majority of glomus tumors are benign, malignant cases have been rarely reported, with such cases typically being locally invasive, and with metastases being exceedingly rare.


Background A poroma is a benign adnexal neoplasm composed of epithelial cells that show tubular (usually distal ductal) differentiation. The malignant counterpart of a poroma is referred to as porocarcinoma.] Poromas historically have been considered glandular adnexal neoplasms of eccrine lineage, and this view is so entrenched that the neoplasm is often referred to as […]

Capillary Hemangioma

Background Capillary hemangiomas are one of the most common benign orbital tumors of infancy. They are benign endothelial cell neoplasms that are typically absent at birth and characteristically have rapid growth in infancy with spontaneous involution later in life. This is in contrast to another known group of childhood vascular anomalies, vascular malformations. Vascular malformations, […]

LIPOMA (angiolipoma)

Background Lipomas are benign tumors composed of mature fat cells. They are the most common benign mesenchymal tumor. Lipomas are found in the subcutaneous tissues and, less commonly, in internal organs. Lipomas usually present with little difficulty in diagnosis or morbidity. Lipomas typically develop as discrete rubbery masses in the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk […]

Chickenpox (Varicella)

What is chickenpox? Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection with the varicella-zoster virus. The name may be derived from the French term for chick pea, chiche pois. Another theory is that the word ‘chicken’ was derived from a slang term for ‘child’. Who is at risk of chickenpox? Chickenpox occurs worldwide, […]

Tinea Pedis

Tinea pedis is a foot infection due to a dermatophyte fungus. Tinea pedis thrives in warm humid conditions and is most common in young adult men. Tinea pedis is most frequently due to: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum T. interdigitale, previously called T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale Epidermophyton floccosum Moccasin tinea pedis Clinical features Tinea pedis has various patterns and may […]

Tuberous Sclerosis

What is tuberous sclerosis? Tuberous sclerosis or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that is characterised by hamartomas in many organs, but particularly the skin, brain, eye, kidney and heart. Hamartomas are non-cancerous malformations composed of overgrowth of the cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area and include naevi (birthmarks). […]


In trichothiodystrophy, the hair shafts are deficient in sulphur resulting in transverse fractures. Polarising microscopy reveals intermittent dark bands. Trichothiodystrophy may occur as an isolated hair shaft abnormality or may be associated with photosensitivity, ichthyosis, brittle hair, mental retardation, short stature, neurologic abnormalities, and nail and teeth dystrophy (Tay syndrome, OMIM ID %275550).

Tinea Faciei

Tinea faciei is the name used for infection of the face with a dermatophyte fungus. It does not include infection of the beard and moustache area, which is called tinea barbae. Tinea faciei is uncommon and often misdiagnosed at first. Tinea faciei can be due to an anthropophilic (human) fungus such as Trichophyton rubrum. (T. rubrum). Infection often […]

Tinea Corporis

Tinea corporis (ringworm) is the name used for infection of the trunk, legs or arms with adermatophyte fungus. In different parts of the world, different species cause tinea corporis. In New Zealand, Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is the most common cause. Infection often comes from the feet (tinea pedis) or nails (tinea unguium) originally. Microsporum canis (M. canis) […]